Wireless IP, The Killer Application !?

My website and thesis captures the essential elements in the convergence path of wireless networks and Internet protocols resulting in the new paradigm of "Wireless IP." It covers all the important 1G/2G cellular technologies that I have seen in the past decade, along with 3G and 4G, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technologies,including modifications required in protocols, architectures, and framework in virtually every area such as QoS, security, mobility, and so on.

The thesis can be useful for anyone who is interested in the convergence of the wireless and IP networks and for them who need to understand how packet data services and IP work in the wireless world. Furthermore, the thesis represents my views and opinions , based on my technical understanding and experience in these areas

Because the increase of higher system capacities and data rates provided by latest and proposed wireless network technologies, and their closer integration with the Internet enabled by the IP technologies used in these wireless networks are enabling many new ways for people to communicate.
Also people on moving vehicles (e.g. cars, trains, boats and airplanes) may access the Internet or their enterprise networks the same way as when they are at their offices or homes. They may be able to surf the Internet, access their corporate networks, download games from the network, play games with remote users, obtain tour guidance information, obtain real-time traffic and route conditions information.

Wireless networks are evolving into wireless IP networks to overcome the limitations of traditional circuit-switched wireless networks. Wireless IP networks are more suitable for supporting the rapidly growing mobile data and multimedia applications.
IP technologies (such as Mobile IP) are the most promising solutions available today for supporting data and multimedia applications over wireless networks. IP-based wireless networks will bring the globally successful Internet service into wireless networks. The mobile or wireless Internet will be an extension to the current Internet.

Advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as; MMS, play games in real time with remote users, Voice over wireless (VoIP calls) and broadcasting of audio and video advertisements to mobile phone users such as: advertiser supported phone calls, Wireless IP-enabled radio and watch TV, will grow very fast. New IP broadcasting techniques such as DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds), will make it possible to bring video broadcasting services to handheld receivers.

In particular, the growth of advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) help increase multimedia traffic over the wireless networks significantly. Thus, Wireless IP can also be a killer sometimes. Therefore future Wireless IP networks can only be able to service those mobile data and multimedia applications without congestions in the Wireless network, if those Wireless IP networks are ready for it. In other words, "those networks need to be controlled (e.g. by QoS parameters or other specific protocols) end must have enough bandwidth to support all this types of services. Wireless networks and the IP technologies within those networks have to be reviewed and evolved constantly.

Remark these words:
The traffic on broadband wireless networks will be increasingly IP

Archive for November, 2013

Services can also be classified into push and pull services. Push services are those that are delivered to the user without the user actively requesting them. Weather or flight updates, stock quotes, and news could be types of content that can be delivered via push services. Advertisements can also be classified as push services. The network has to be designed to support push services. User profiles would specify the type of services that the user has subscribed to or is capable of accessing. Pull services are typically the ones where the user initiates a request and obtains the content or sets up a session as a result. Web browsing is a typical pull service where the user requests information from some URL.

The types of services and applications that are offered and used by subscribers depend on whether the mobile service is used for business reasons or for personal use. Corporate and enterprise users are generally heavy users of mobile services and are normally targeted by the operators when launching new services

From an end-user perspective, applications and services can be defined as follows:

An application is a piece of software that enables a service. For example, Instant Messaging is a service. Application software, which includes the underlying protocols, middleware, and user interface, is combined to deliver a service. The service may require multiple network elements to work together. Network operators who view the network as a system are more interested in the services that can be offered to end users that generate revenue. The end user sees an application on the mobile terminal or device.

Nov
23

Future Mobile IP

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Enhancements to the Mobile IP technique, such as Mobile IPv6 is being developed to improve mobile communications in certain circumstances by making the processes more secure and more efficient.

Nov
23

How Mobile IP Works

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In brief, Mobile IP routing works as follows. Packets destined to a mobile node are routed first to its home network; a network identified by the network prefix of the mobile node’s (permanent) home address. At the home network, the mobile node’s home agent intercepts such packets and tunnels them to the mobile node’s most recently reported care-of address. At the endpoint of the tunnel, the inner packets are de-capsulated and delivered to the mobile node. In the reverse direction, packets sourced by mobile nodes are routed to their destination using standard IP routing mechanisms.

Before getting into more detail, it is a good idea to frame the discussion by setting some terminology. Mobile IP introduces the following functional entities:

Mobile node (MN): A host or router that changes its point of attachment from one network or sub-network to another, without changing its IP address. A mobile node can continue to communicate with other Internet nodes at any location using its (constant) IP address.

Home agent (HA): A router on a mobile node’s home network which delivers datagram’s to departed mobile nodes, and maintains current location information for each.

Foreign agent (FA): A router on a mobile node’s visited network which cooperates with the home agent to complete the delivery of datagram’s to the mobile node while it is away from home.

A mobile node has a home address, which is a long-term IP address on its home network. When away from its home network, a care-of address is associated with the mobile node and reflects the mobile node’s current point of attachment. The mobile node uses its home address as the source address of all IP datagram’s it sends, except where otherwise required for certain registration request datagram’s.

Nov
22

What is Mobile IP?

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Mobile IP is an standard communications protocol that is designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another. It is designed to serve the needs of the population of mobile computer users who wish to connect to the internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place.

Or in other words; its goal is to provide the ability of a host to stay connected to the internet regardless of their location. Mobile IP is able to track a mobile host without needing to change the mobile host’s long-term IP address.

Nov
21

The rise of Mobile IP

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The old Internet Protocol versions do not support host mobility. These were designed such that moving hosts were not considered: a node’s point of attachment to the network remains unchanged at all times, and an IP address identifies a particular network. To support a mobile host with current methods, reconfiguration is necessary any time a mobile host moves. This is an unacceptable solution as it is time consuming and error prone.

IrDA-Data is  used as a short-range wireless connectivity technology. It is a point-to-point, narrow angle data communications standard specified to provide wireless communication capabilities at distance of up to 1 meter and at data rates of 9600 bps to 16 Mbps. It is currently used in several million devices, primarily for cable replacement to exchange data using line-of-sight wireless communications. It is incorporated in notebook computers, printers, mobile phones, watches, medical equipment, and so on.

Bluetooth and IrDA may have overlapping functionalities, but Bluetooth supports a wider set of applications than what is supported by the IrDA. In this way, Bluetooth ensured interoperability with IrDA. IrDA has no security mechanisms defined; anyone can snoop into data being exchanged between two devices. Line-of-sight communications minimize such problems.

Why?
Because of the use of spread spectrum radio frequency that enables omni-directional multiple connections. Bluetooth provides better security by needing to perform authentication and then encrypt data exchanges.Bluetooth has gained wider acceptance for use in numerous devices to be built by many manufacturers.

Infrared technology uses very high frequencies, just below visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum to carry data. While popular with other wireless technologies, it is not gaining momentum with WLANs. IR cannot penetrate opaque objects and uses directed (line-of-sight) technology, and is hence good for small rooms.

It is good for inexpensive, directed, very limited range (up to three feet) systems, but occasionally it is used in specific WLAN applications. Infrared-based wireless LANs are often used in high-security applications because infrared signals do not penetrate solid objects, like walls.

There are basically three different options:

Broadband access – In your home, you have either a DSL or Cable Modem. At the office, your company may be using a T1 or a T3 line.

WiFi access – In your home, you may have set up a WiFi router that lets you surf the Web while you lounge with your laptop. On the road, you can find WiFi hot spots in restaurants, hotels, coffee shops and libraries.

Dial-up access – If you are still using dial-up, chances are that either broadband access is not available, or you think that broadband access is too expensive.

The main problems with broadband access are that it is pretty expensive and it doesn’t reach all areas. The main problem with WiFi access is that hot spots are very small, so coverage is sparse

What if there will be a new technology that solves all of these problems? — This new technology would provide: • The high speed of broadband service. • Wireless rather than wired access, so it would be a lot less expensive than cable or DSL and much easier to extend to suburban and rural areas. • Broad coverage like the cell phone network instead of small WiFi hotspots

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