Wireless IP, The Killer Application !?

My website and thesis captures the essential elements in the convergence path of wireless networks and Internet protocols resulting in the new paradigm of "Wireless IP." It covers all the important 1G/2G cellular technologies that I have seen in the past decade, along with 3G and 4G, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technologies,including modifications required in protocols, architectures, and framework in virtually every area such as QoS, security, mobility, and so on.

The thesis can be useful for anyone who is interested in the convergence of the wireless and IP networks and for them who need to understand how packet data services and IP work in the wireless world. Furthermore, the thesis represents my views and opinions , based on my technical understanding and experience in these areas

Because the increase of higher system capacities and data rates provided by latest and proposed wireless network technologies, and their closer integration with the Internet enabled by the IP technologies used in these wireless networks are enabling many new ways for people to communicate.
Also people on moving vehicles (e.g. cars, trains, boats and airplanes) may access the Internet or their enterprise networks the same way as when they are at their offices or homes. They may be able to surf the Internet, access their corporate networks, download games from the network, play games with remote users, obtain tour guidance information, obtain real-time traffic and route conditions information.

Wireless networks are evolving into wireless IP networks to overcome the limitations of traditional circuit-switched wireless networks. Wireless IP networks are more suitable for supporting the rapidly growing mobile data and multimedia applications.
IP technologies (such as Mobile IP) are the most promising solutions available today for supporting data and multimedia applications over wireless networks. IP-based wireless networks will bring the globally successful Internet service into wireless networks. The mobile or wireless Internet will be an extension to the current Internet.

Advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as; MMS, play games in real time with remote users, Voice over wireless (VoIP calls) and broadcasting of audio and video advertisements to mobile phone users such as: advertiser supported phone calls, Wireless IP-enabled radio and watch TV, will grow very fast. New IP broadcasting techniques such as DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds), will make it possible to bring video broadcasting services to handheld receivers.

In particular, the growth of advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) help increase multimedia traffic over the wireless networks significantly. Thus, Wireless IP can also be a killer sometimes. Therefore future Wireless IP networks can only be able to service those mobile data and multimedia applications without congestions in the Wireless network, if those Wireless IP networks are ready for it. In other words, "those networks need to be controlled (e.g. by QoS parameters or other specific protocols) end must have enough bandwidth to support all this types of services. Wireless networks and the IP technologies within those networks have to be reviewed and evolved constantly.

Remark these words:
The traffic on broadband wireless networks will be increasingly IP

Archive for November, 2013

HomeRF is a wireless networking specification for home devices to share data.

HomeRF stands for Home Radio Frequency, as it uses radio frequencies to transmit data within a 50 meter range (over ranges of 75 to 125 feet) of an access point while remaining connected to the PAN. HomeRF uses FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) in the 2.4 GHz frequency band.
HomeRF allows both traditional telephone signals and data signals to be exchanged over the same wireless network. Therefore, in HomeRF, cordless telephones and laptops, for example, can share the same bandwidth in the same home of office.

Overall the major disadvantage to a HomeRF network is data transmission speed. Two Mbps is fine for sharing files and printing normal files. It is insufficient for streaming media and printing or transferring large graphic files. HomeRF also does not interfere with Bluetooth and is better for transmitting voice signals.

Nov
17

UWB’s potential market

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Today, the definition for ultra wideband, according to the FCC, is any radio technology with a spectrum that occupies greater than 20 percent of the center frequency or a minimum of 500MHz. Recognizing the advantages of new products that could incorporate this technology to benefit public safety, enterprise and consumer applications.

Additional spectrum is also available for use by medical, scientific, law enforcement, fire and rescue organizations.

UWB provides communication capabilities of 55, 80, 110, 160, 200, 320, and 480 Mb/s. The support of transmitting and receiving at data rates of 55, 110, and 200 Mb/s is mandatory. UWB operates within the presence of other 802.11 WiFi systems.  In other words, it will co-exist with WiFi systems, if a UWB system detects an 802.11 signal, it will change frequency.

As you know now, UWB signals are designed for short-range, low-power applications such as motion-detection (auto collision detectors), monitoring large numbers of sensors like weather, hazardous materials, inventory tracking, home automation and many others including range-finding (determining distances) for military (bomb-finding) and penetrating capabilities such as stud-finding (nails in walls).

Ultra-wideband (UWB) usually refers to a radio communications technique based on transmitting very-short-duration pulses, often of duration of only nanoseconds or less, whereby the occupied bandwidth goes to very large values. Although the connection speed decreases quickly as a function of distance, wireless UWB has the potential to replace the cables that currently connect devices.

UWB was originally a transmission technology used by military people. UWB has been redefined as a high data rate (480+ Mbps), short-range (up to 20 meters) technology that specifically addresses emerging applications in the consumer electronics, personal computing and mobile device markets (see figure 2.20: UWB’s potential market). When compared to other existing and nascent technologies capable of providing wireless connectivity, the performance benefits of UWB are compelling.

For example, transferring a 1 Gbyte file full of vacation pictures from a digital camera to a photo kiosk would take merely seconds with UWB compared to hours using other currently available, lower speed technologies (i.e. Bluetooth) and consume far less battery power in doing so.

UWB is a wireless radio technology for transmitting data point-to-point between consumer electronics, PC peripherals and mobile devices within short range at very high speeds, while consuming little power. Therefore, it is ideally suited for transfer of high-quality multimedia content, such as the wireless streaming of family videos from the digital video recorder to a high-definition television in the living room, or wirelessly connecting a mobile PC to a projector in a conference room to deliver a presentation.

Nov
16

Wireless Radio

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A Wireless network provides a shared radio media for users to communicate with each other and to access an IP network (e.g. the Internet, an enterprise network, an Internet Service Provider, or an Internet Application Provider). A WLANs for example, exist for 900 MHz (902–928 MHz), 2.4 GHz (2400–2483.5MHz) and 5 GHz (5150–5850MHz) ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) unlicensed radio frequency bands. The following graphics depicts where in the spectrum the unlicensed frequency bands used for Wireless LAN reside.

Wireless radio

2.4 GHz ISM Band

In general Industry Scientific and Medical (ISM) unlicensed bands require that users may not claim interference protection from any of the other users (provided the usage respects the regulations). The license-exempt ISM band at 2.4 GHz is globally available. It is however used by many different systems including microwave ovens, cordless telephones (USA), IEEE 802.11b WLAN, Bluetooth WPAN. The frequencies allowed are 2.4–2.4835 GHz. Some countries restrict the number of channels available and the channel bandwidth for frequency hopping. The IEEE 802.11 standards take into account the different regulatory domains allowing these parameters to be set by the user.

5 GHz ISM Band

5.15–5.25 GHz: This band is available in many world regions, and is shared only with the Primary Service earth-space feeder links. In Europe this band is restricted to the Primary Service shared with High Performance Radio Local Area Networks (RLANs).

5.25–5.35 GHz: This band is shared with radio-location / navigation and earth exploration satellite services. It is available also for RLAN in most regions along with the 5.15–5.25 GHz band, with the exception of Japan.

5.470–5.725 GHz: This band is similarly shared in Europe. Therefore the interference in these bands in Europe is limited to other RLANs and the Primary Services only. Europe is the only region to date to have allowed 5.470–5.725 GHz for RLANs, but the allocation in other regions is a topic addressed by the next World Radio Conference.

5.725–5.825 GHz: This band is currently only suitable for RLAN use in the USA and Canada. It is an ISM band but in other regions the short range applications are restricted to low power, e.g. 50 mW in Europe

 

5 GHz seems to be the spectrum where mass deployment of WLAN products will be initiated. !!

 

 

Ultra-wideband (UWB) usually refers to a radio communications technique based on transmitting very-short-duration pulses, often of duration of only nanoseconds or less, whereby the occupied bandwidth goes to very large values. Although the connection speed decreases quickly as a function of distance, wireless UWB has the potential to replace the cables that currently connect devices.

UWB was originally a transmission technology used by military people. UWB has been redefined as a high data rate (480+ Mbps), short-range (up to 20 meters) technology that specifically addresses emerging applications in the consumer electronics, personal computing and mobile device markets (see figure 2.20: UWB’s potential market). When compared to other existing and nascent technologies capable of providing wireless connectivity, the performance benefits of UWB are compelling.

For example, transferring a 1 Gbyte file full of vacation pictures from a digital camera to a photo kiosk would take merely seconds with UWB compared to hours using other currently available, lower speed technologies (i.e. Bluetooth) and consume far less battery power in doing so.

UWB is a wireless radio technology for transmitting data point-to-point between consumer electronics, PC peripherals and mobile devices within short range at very high speeds, while consuming little power.

Ultra-wideband (UWB) is ideally suited for transfer of high-quality multimedia content, such as the wireless streaming of family videos from the digital video recorder to a high-definition television in the living room, or wirelessly connecting a mobile PC to a projector in a conference room to deliver a presentation.

ZigBee is a published specification set of high level communication protocols designed to use small, low power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for WPANs.
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard and Zigbee wireless technology are specifically designed to satisfy the market’s need for a low cost, standard-based and flexible wireless network technology, which supports low power consumption, reliability, interoperability and security for control and monitoring applications with low to moderate data rates.

The ZigBee standard has been developed to address the market for low data rates (250kbps) short-range communications in the 1 to 75 meters range. It uses the ISM bands at 868 MHz (Europe), 915MHz (USA) and 2,4GHz (international). The ZigBee technology is designed to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth.

The complexity and cost of the IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee compliant devices are intended to be low and scalable (application dependent) in order to enable broad commercial adaptation within cost sensitive applications. In addition, the system implementations based on this standard will enable long battery lifetime by power-friendly features at the physical, MAC and network layers. The application sphere of this WPAN technology ranges from industrial monitoring and control, home automation, sensor networks to gaming, medical and automotive solutions.

Many of the wireless applications were characterized by low data rates, high cost, and a lack of a worldwide standard that limited widespread deployment. These WLANs were used in many areas, such as manufacturing, retail, and warehousing. It was at this juncture that IEEE stepped in and created the standards for WLANs.

Depending on the radio technology, mobility can be either limited to pedestrian speeds only or can support communication even at speeds up to 120 Kmph.

However,  mobility places a few requirements on the network:

  • They must have the ability to locate subscribers.
  • They must monitor the movement of the subscribers.
  • They must enable handoffs seamlessly as the user moves across cells while sessions are kept alive.

Concepts of mobility:

  • Roaming

Roaming can be defined as the movement of the mobile terminal from one network to another. Network operators have coverage that is either limited in scope or is limited to a country.

In order to support global mobility, network operators agree to allow subscribers from other networks to roam into their networks and access services. Roaming agreements between operators enable subscribers to roam on a global basis while being reachable all the time.

  • Handovers

Handover is the process of switching a call or session that is in progress from one physical channel to another. Handovers can be classified into intracell and intercell. Intracell handover is the transfer of a call in progress from a channel in one cell to another channel in the same cell. Intercell handover is the transfer of the call or session to another cell.

Wireless communication allows users to access the network in any location, if appropriately configured. Mobility allows users to roam around campus with no need to look for ports of access and may allow large-scale deployments in public areas as well. Going wireless allows a new set of applications that were not possible with wired 802.3 LANs.

However, the fundamental premise of 802.3 LANs, such as secure, reliable, high-speed communication that allows multiple users fair and consistent access to the medium, needs to be realized in the 802.11 WLAN families as well.

Nov
12

Wireless Networks

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Due to the nature of radio propagation, radio systems covering small geographical areas typically could provide higher data rates and require lower levels of radio transmission power than radio systems covering larger geographical areas. Therefore, wireless networks are usually optimized to fit different coverage areas and communications needs.