Wireless IP, The Killer Application !?

My website and thesis captures the essential elements in the convergence path of wireless networks and Internet protocols resulting in the new paradigm of "Wireless IP." It covers all the important 1G/2G cellular technologies that I have seen in the past decade, along with 3G and 4G, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technologies,including modifications required in protocols, architectures, and framework in virtually every area such as QoS, security, mobility, and so on.

The thesis can be useful for anyone who is interested in the convergence of the wireless and IP networks and for them who need to understand how packet data services and IP work in the wireless world. Furthermore, the thesis represents my views and opinions , based on my technical understanding and experience in these areas

Because the increase of higher system capacities and data rates provided by latest and proposed wireless network technologies, and their closer integration with the Internet enabled by the IP technologies used in these wireless networks are enabling many new ways for people to communicate.
Also people on moving vehicles (e.g. cars, trains, boats and airplanes) may access the Internet or their enterprise networks the same way as when they are at their offices or homes. They may be able to surf the Internet, access their corporate networks, download games from the network, play games with remote users, obtain tour guidance information, obtain real-time traffic and route conditions information.

Wireless networks are evolving into wireless IP networks to overcome the limitations of traditional circuit-switched wireless networks. Wireless IP networks are more suitable for supporting the rapidly growing mobile data and multimedia applications.
IP technologies (such as Mobile IP) are the most promising solutions available today for supporting data and multimedia applications over wireless networks. IP-based wireless networks will bring the globally successful Internet service into wireless networks. The mobile or wireless Internet will be an extension to the current Internet.

Advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as; MMS, play games in real time with remote users, Voice over wireless (VoIP calls) and broadcasting of audio and video advertisements to mobile phone users such as: advertiser supported phone calls, Wireless IP-enabled radio and watch TV, will grow very fast. New IP broadcasting techniques such as DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds), will make it possible to bring video broadcasting services to handheld receivers.

In particular, the growth of advanced mobile data and multimedia applications such as Voice-over-IP (VoIP) help increase multimedia traffic over the wireless networks significantly. Thus, Wireless IP can also be a killer sometimes. Therefore future Wireless IP networks can only be able to service those mobile data and multimedia applications without congestions in the Wireless network, if those Wireless IP networks are ready for it. In other words, "those networks need to be controlled (e.g. by QoS parameters or other specific protocols) end must have enough bandwidth to support all this types of services. Wireless networks and the IP technologies within those networks have to be reviewed and evolved constantly.

Remark these words:
The traffic on broadband wireless networks will be increasingly IP

Archive for March, 2014


WiMAX provides two forms of wireless service

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What this points out is that :
• There is the Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS),WiFi sort of service, where a small antenna on your computer connects to the tower. In this mode, WiMAX uses a lower frequency range, 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to WiFi). Lower-wavelength transmissions are not as easily disrupted by physical obstructions — they are better able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles.

• There is Line-Of-Sight (LOS) service, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more stable, so it’s able to send a lot of data with fewer errors. Line-of-sight transmissions use higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a possible 66 GHz. At higher frequencies, there is less interference and lots more bandwidth.

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What can WiMAX do?

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WiMAX operates on the same general principles as WiFi, it sends data from one computer to another via radio signals. A computer (either a desktop or a laptop) equipped with WiMAX would receive data from the WiMAX transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users from stealing access.

WiMAX should be able to handle up to 70 megabits per second. Even once that 70 megabits is split up between several dozen businesses or a few hundred home users, it will provide at least the equivalent of cable-modem transfer rates to each user. WiMAX outdistances WiFi by miles.
WiMAX will blanket a radius of 30 miles (~50 km) with wireless access. The increased range is due to the frequencies used and the power of the transmitter. Of course, at that distance, terrain, weather and large buildings will act to reduce the maximum range in some circumstances, but the potential is there to cover huge tracts of land.

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How WiMAX works

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In practical terms, WiMAX would operate similar to WiFi but at higher speeds, over greater distances and for a greater number of users. WiMAX could potentially erase the suburban and rural blackout areas that currently have no broadband Internet access because phone and cable companies have not yet run the necessary wires to those remote locations.

A WiMAX system consists of two parts:
• A WiMAX tower, similar in concept to a cell-phone tower. A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles (~8,000 square km).
• A WiMAX receiver, the receiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today.

A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection. It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a Line-Of-Sight (LOS), microwave link.

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Low-tier wireless systems

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Low-tier wireless systems use radio to connect a telephone handset to a base station that is connected via a wireline network to a telephone company. They are designed mainly to serve users with pedestrian-moving speeds. Typically, the coverage ranges of such low-tier base stations are less than 500m outdoors and less than 30m indoors.

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HomeRF Security

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Since privacy is a primary concern for many wireless technology users, HomeRF has vowed to make the technology as secure as possible. The first form of security in HomeRF is a 24-bit network IP that is specific to each personal area network. This network IP prevents devices outside of a users personal area network intercepting and using information sent from a remote personal area network. Take an apartment block as an example, HomeRF devices from one system could potentially interfere with another apartments HomeRF system.

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Competing Technologies to IEEE 802.11

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HiperLAN (High Performance Radio LAN) is a global WLAN technology primarily used in European countries. There are two specifications: HiperLAN/1 and HiperLAN/2. Both have been adopted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The HiperLAN standards provide features and capabilities similar to those of the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (LAN) standards.

There are two types of HiperLAN:
• HiperLAN/1: provides communications at up to 20 Mbps in the 5 GHz band.
• HiperLAN/2: provides communications at up to 54 Mbps in the 5 GHz band

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Frequency reuse

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Cellular systems utilize the concept of frequency reuse to provide higher capacity. The core concept of cellular systems is to reuse the same frequency in a network. A specific radio frequency is transmitted from one base station at a power level that supports communication within a moderate cell radius.
Since the power limit is controlled to serve a limited range, the same frequency can be transmitted simultaneously or reused by another base station as long as there is no interference between it and any other base station using the same frequency many times over.

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Cellular Fundamentals – Core Network (CN)

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The core network consists of the Mobile Switching Centers (MSCs), the Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), AUthentication Center (AUC), billing servers, operation and support systems, Short Message Service Centers (SMSC), and many other elements.
The Core Network can also be seen as an evolved GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) Core Network infrastructure or any new Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Core Network infrastructure, integrating circuit and packet switched traffic.

The subscriber profile and the services that the subscriber is allowed to access are inserted in the HLR. The HLR is also aware of the mobile station’s current location. The BSC interfaces to the core network via the MSC. A single MSC can be serving more than one BSC. Mobility management as well as communication with the HLR, VLR, and authentication centers is done via mobility application protocols such as GSM MAP (Mobile Application Part) or IS-41 (Intermediate System 41). The core network elements are connected to each other via a Signaling System 7 (SS7) network, which provides the transport for signaling messages. The MSC also provides call control and switching functionality. Supplementary services, such as three-way calling and call barring, are also supported by the MSC.

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Cellular Fundamentals – Radio Access Network (RAN)

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Radio Access Network (RAN)

Cellular networks can be considered from the perspective of being divided into the Radio Access Network (RAN) and the Core Network (CN).
The Radio Access Network performs the radio functionality of the network, as well providing the connection to the CN (Core Network). The radio access network comprises of the Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs) and the controller element, which is called the Base Station Controller (BSC). The BTSs are basically the radio elements (RF equipment) on the network side. Mobile terminals (MT) connect to the network via the BTSs. The BTS transmits system information over channels defined for broadcasting network specific information, and mobile stations tune in to these channels before performing access functions. A BTS is connected to a cell site, which hosts antennas atop towers or buildings. Cell sites can be of type macro, micro, or pico depending on the coverage radius. The size of a cell site is dependent on the transmit power level of the BTS.

The radio access network is the largest component of the mobile network, and a large number of base stations and cell sites are provisioned in order to provide coverage. Nationwide coverage of mobile networks requires the deployment of thousands of BTSs. The BTSs provide the channels for use on a dynamic basis to subscribers. Traffic and control channels are defined for the air interfaces depending on the type of technology used. The BTSs are controlled by the base station controller. So from a relationship perspective, a single BSC controls many BTSs. The BSC is responsible for managing the radio resources at the BTSs. The BSC assigns channels to subscribers on a need basis. In addition, it is constantly aware of a Mobile Station’s (MSs) location and the state that it is in. It measures the signal strength (with the assistance of the BTS and the MS) and makes handoff decisions. In the case of CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) networks, BSCs are also responsible for performing the macro-diversity-combining function required in spread spectrum systems. In addition, the speech coding function may be incorporated into the BSC in some cases.

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